Resources on Energy-Efficient Metering & Feedback

AB Core Performance Guide – The Advanced Buildings Core Performance Guide covers the construction of small to medium commercial buildings. Section 1.7 covers the use of Performance Data in the review of building performance.
www.advancedbuildings.net/corePerf.htm

EISA 2007 - The federal policy act requiring the use of advanced metering by federal facilities when applicable. See also, Metering Best Practices Guide Below.
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/eisa_femp.pdf

EPA’s Energy Star Portfolio Manager Spring 2010 Report http://www.energystar.gov/ia/business/downloads/ENERGY_STAR_Snapshot_Spring_2010.pdf

California AB 1103 and Seattle Disclosure Ordinance - A few jurisdictions are adopting so called “Disclosure Ordinances” which require owners, sometimes as part of a sale, to calculate and disclose a benchmarking score or typical annual energy usage amount of all fuels for a building. So far the California State requirement of AB1103, http://www.ab1103.com/, and the city of Seattle ordinance, http://www.seattle.gov/mayor/newsdetail.asp?ID=10497&dept=48, are the most notable examples.

Proposed 2010 International Green Construction Code
http://www.iccsafe.org/cs/igcc/pages/default.aspx

FEMP Metering Best Practices Guide - A publication prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Meter technology, data acquisition, and analysis techniques along with cost-benefit analysis are covered in detail for electric, gas, and water usage information in commercial buildings.
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/mbpg.pdf

NBI Metering Paper - Additional resources and cost estimates summarizing Energy Information System components: Meters, data acquisition, software and analysis, with cost estimates.
http://newbuildings.org/sites/default/files/metering-EPA%2083378201.pdf

Lawrence Berkeley National Lab EIS Paper - A brochure that leads to two links to extensive LBNL research papers into EIS including an examination of definitions, products, and services in the EIS space.
http://eetd.lbl.gov/BT/hpcbs/pubs/EIS-brochure.pdf

Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Monitoring Based Commissioning (MBCx) Paper - A formal examination of the use of EIS in improving and maintaining efficiency performance in Retro-Commissioning using permanent installed meters and monitoring to baseline and track energy usage.
http://cx.lbl.gov/MBCx.html

EnerNOC Example - Third-party Facility Monitor - An example of a company that provides an EEMS and energy monitoring services for MBCx and ongoing energy tracking for owners and managers of commercial real estate typically at the whole building level.
http://www.enernoc.com/solutions/energy-efficiency.php

Chiller Plant Monitoring Example - An example of a third-party energy monitoring company, among other services, that provides a Facility Manager EIS including monitoring at the equipment level to ensure persistence in high performance of the HVAC system.
http://www.optimumenergyhvac.com/NewStandard.pdf

Useful Definitions

  • Energy Information System (EIS) – A system of meter, sensors and analysis software that collect and analyze the data at a building or campus for the purpose of increasing energy efficiency in building or site operations.
  • Interval meter, advanced meter, “smart meter” – An energy meter that provides usage and rate of usage information for a particular fuel at intervals short enough to be used in operation improvement, typically every 15 minutes. For electrical meters more detailed power quality analysis may be provided.
  • Utility Meter – A meter provided by a fuel utility or retail seller of fuel.
  • Whole Building Meter – A meter that measures the total amount of a certain fuel used at a single structure and its associated grounds. Often the Whole Building Meter is a utility meter.
  • Site Meter – A meter that measures the total amount of a certain fuel used a site or campus of multiple buildings or structures.
  • Sub-meter – A meter that is downstream of another meter that measures a sub-set of energy usage for the purpose of gathering more detailed information for billing or analysis.
  • System Level Sub-Meter – A sub-meter that measures a subset of fuel used for a particular purpose in a building or site. e.g. heating usage, cooling usage, plug loads, lighting, or other category. A utility allocation sub-meter measures fuel usage for a particular tenant or occupant group for billing purposes.
  • Utility Allocation Sub-meter – The sub-metering of a fuel at a building, site, or part of a building for the purpose of allocating the portion of fuel used from a utility meter to that particular building, site or building portion. The sub-meter is often used to allocate a portion of the utility bill to a tenant space and requires a meter that has higher accuracy than a typical sub-meter.
  • Equipment Level Meter – A sub-meter that measures a subset of fuel used for a specific piece of building or site equipment. E.g. Chiller, boiler, Air Handling Unit. Often combined with sensors measuring fluid flow, temperatures, and other equipment attributes.
  • Data Acquisition System (DAS) / Gateway – The DAS is used to gather data from meters in a building or at a site using an industry standard communications protocol. The DAS may be the building automation system or a stand-alone system. The Gateway is the device that transfers the data from the DAS to a remote database for analysis by a software user interface such as an EIS GUI or an EEMS.
  • Building Automation System (BAS) – The control system that maintains building operations and maintains space comfort for building or site occupants using various sensors and actuators. Often the BAS serves as the DAS and/or Gateway for an EIS, allowing the BAS to monitor and control and optimize energy usage and the whole package is referred to as an Energy Management Control System (EMCS).
  • Facility Manager – A person that manages day-to-day operation of the systems at a site or campus to maintain comfort and operating condition of equipment and settings. They may or may not use the EIS in their performance improvement routine.
  • Facility Manager EIS Software – Software that displays and analyzes EIS meter and sensor data to allow the facility manager to analyze operations on a day-to-day basis.
  • Organization Energy Manager – The organizational member that tracks energy performance at a portfolio of buildings or sites using an EEMS to allocate resources for fuel management across a group of buildings or sites.
  • Enterprise Energy Management Software (EEMS) – A software user interface that allows an organizational Energy Manager to view, track and make reports of energy usage and improve energy performance in a portfolio of buildings, sites, or campuses.
  • Monitoring Based Commissioning (MBCx) – The use of advanced metered data and persistent monitoring of energy metrics to ensure that savings achieved during the Retrocommissioning or Commissioning of a building are preserved over time.
  • BTU, BTUH – British Thermal Units and British Thermal Units per Hour
  • kWh, kW – kilowatt-hour and kilowatt
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