Resources on Energy-Efficient Metering & Feedback

AB Core Performance Guide – The Advanced Buildings Core Performance Guide covers the construction of small to medium commercial buildings. Section 1.7 covers the use of Performance Data in the review of building performance.

EISA 2007 - The federal policy act requiring the use of advanced metering by federal facilities when applicable. See also, Metering Best Practices Guide Below.

EPA’s Energy Star Portfolio Manager Spring 2010 Report

California AB 1103 and Seattle Disclosure Ordinance - A few jurisdictions are adopting so called “Disclosure Ordinances” which require owners, sometimes as part of a sale, to calculate and disclose a benchmarking score or typical annual energy usage amount of all fuels for a building. So far the California State requirement of AB1103,, and the city of Seattle ordinance,, are the most notable examples.

Proposed 2010 International Green Construction Code

FEMP Metering Best Practices Guide - A publication prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Meter technology, data acquisition, and analysis techniques along with cost-benefit analysis are covered in detail for electric, gas, and water usage information in commercial buildings.

NBI Metering Paper - Additional resources and cost estimates summarizing Energy Information System components: Meters, data acquisition, software and analysis, with cost estimates.

Lawrence Berkeley National Lab EIS Paper - A brochure that leads to two links to extensive LBNL research papers into EIS including an examination of definitions, products, and services in the EIS space.

Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Monitoring Based Commissioning (MBCx) Paper - A formal examination of the use of EIS in improving and maintaining efficiency performance in Retro-Commissioning using permanent installed meters and monitoring to baseline and track energy usage.

EnerNOC Example - Third-party Facility Monitor - An example of a company that provides an EEMS and energy monitoring services for MBCx and ongoing energy tracking for owners and managers of commercial real estate typically at the whole building level.

Chiller Plant Monitoring Example - An example of a third-party energy monitoring company, among other services, that provides a Facility Manager EIS including monitoring at the equipment level to ensure persistence in high performance of the HVAC system.

Useful Definitions

  • Energy Information System (EIS) – A system of meter, sensors and analysis software that collect and analyze the data at a building or campus for the purpose of increasing energy efficiency in building or site operations.
  • Interval meter, advanced meter, “smart meter” – An energy meter that provides usage and rate of usage information for a particular fuel at intervals short enough to be used in operation improvement, typically every 15 minutes. For electrical meters more detailed power quality analysis may be provided.
  • Utility Meter – A meter provided by a fuel utility or retail seller of fuel.
  • Whole Building Meter – A meter that measures the total amount of a certain fuel used at a single structure and its associated grounds. Often the Whole Building Meter is a utility meter.
  • Site Meter – A meter that measures the total amount of a certain fuel used a site or campus of multiple buildings or structures.
  • Sub-meter – A meter that is downstream of another meter that measures a sub-set of energy usage for the purpose of gathering more detailed information for billing or analysis.
  • System Level Sub-Meter – A sub-meter that measures a subset of fuel used for a particular purpose in a building or site. e.g. heating usage, cooling usage, plug loads, lighting, or other category. A utility allocation sub-meter measures fuel usage for a particular tenant or occupant group for billing purposes.
  • Utility Allocation Sub-meter – The sub-metering of a fuel at a building, site, or part of a building for the purpose of allocating the portion of fuel used from a utility meter to that particular building, site or building portion. The sub-meter is often used to allocate a portion of the utility bill to a tenant space and requires a meter that has higher accuracy than a typical sub-meter.
  • Equipment Level Meter – A sub-meter that measures a subset of fuel used for a specific piece of building or site equipment. E.g. Chiller, boiler, Air Handling Unit. Often combined with sensors measuring fluid flow, temperatures, and other equipment attributes.
  • Data Acquisition System (DAS) / Gateway – The DAS is used to gather data from meters in a building or at a site using an industry standard communications protocol. The DAS may be the building automation system or a stand-alone system. The Gateway is the device that transfers the data from the DAS to a remote database for analysis by a software user interface such as an EIS GUI or an EEMS.
  • Building Automation System (BAS) – The control system that maintains building operations and maintains space comfort for building or site occupants using various sensors and actuators. Often the BAS serves as the DAS and/or Gateway for an EIS, allowing the BAS to monitor and control and optimize energy usage and the whole package is referred to as an Energy Management Control System (EMCS).
  • Facility Manager – A person that manages day-to-day operation of the systems at a site or campus to maintain comfort and operating condition of equipment and settings. They may or may not use the EIS in their performance improvement routine.
  • Facility Manager EIS Software – Software that displays and analyzes EIS meter and sensor data to allow the facility manager to analyze operations on a day-to-day basis.
  • Organization Energy Manager – The organizational member that tracks energy performance at a portfolio of buildings or sites using an EEMS to allocate resources for fuel management across a group of buildings or sites.
  • Enterprise Energy Management Software (EEMS) – A software user interface that allows an organizational Energy Manager to view, track and make reports of energy usage and improve energy performance in a portfolio of buildings, sites, or campuses.
  • Monitoring Based Commissioning (MBCx) – The use of advanced metered data and persistent monitoring of energy metrics to ensure that savings achieved during the Retrocommissioning or Commissioning of a building are preserved over time.
  • BTU, BTUH – British Thermal Units and British Thermal Units per Hour
  • kWh, kW – kilowatt-hour and kilowatt